A cellular automaton is a system consisting of a grid (often times 2 dimensional) of cells each having state, which could be a simple on/off or could be any number of scalar and/or vector values.
The system progresses using a discrete concept of time called a time step. Inherent in the system is a static set of rules that dictate how the state of each cell progresses for each time step. This progression is a function of the current state of the cell and the state of the cell's neighbors.
For example, perhaps the most famous cellular automaton is Conway's Game of Life. In Conway's game of life the world consists of a 2 dimensional square grid of cells. Each cell can be either on or off. The neighbors of a cell consist of the 8 cells directly surrounding it. If exactly 2 neighbors are on, then the state of the cell will not change. If exactly 3 neighbors are on then the state of the cell will be turned/remain on. In all other cases the state of the cell will be turned/remain off.
This simple set of rules is able to exhibit an amazing amount of complexity. Initially, when the cells of such a system are randomly populated the progression of state will be quite chaotic. However, over time, patterns will automatically arise.
For example, if a closed subset of cells has a certain state at time t and that subset of cells returns to that same state at a later time, the cells will be in a stable state loop and continue that loop into perpetuity (or until it is disrupted somehow, i.e., stops being a closed subset). Perhaps the cells remain in the same state each time step giving the loop a period of 1. Or perhaps the cells loop back after 2, 3 or more steps, giving their loop a period of 2, 3 or more steps.
Such simple cellular automata have a number of similarities to Universe X. For example Universe X is also made up of a set of discrete cells, in this case 3 dimensional. These cells also have state and the state changes of these cells often loops back creating stable state loops.
In Universe X these loops can persist for long periods of time, have properties of their own and interact with other stable state loops. These stable state loops are the basis of all "matter" in Universe X.
The matter of Universe X is not fundamental. It is an artifact of the properties of aexels. It is not made up of particles; it is not made up of waves; it does not displace the aether. Matter is made up of stable state loops that exist on top of the aether.
However, there are also some differences between Universe X and most cellular automata. Unlike the static cells of Conway's game of life, the cells of Universe X are dynamic; they can move, they can be created and they can be destroyed.
The aexels of Universe X are created and destroyed as a direct result of the state changes of the aexels themselves. The aexels move because they exert a force on one another, but ultimately this motion is first initiated by the creation and destruction of the aexels themselves.
Another somewhat speculative difference is that although the new states of our simple cellular automata are usually based on the current states of the cell and their neighbors, it is probably the case that the state change of an aexel is a function of the change of state rather than just the absolute state of the neighborhood.
In a cellular automaton, a computer will calculate each time step in its entirety before moving the system forward. There is no such master computer in Universe X. There is simply a time delay in transferring a state change from one aexel to its neighbors. In Universe X this delay is called a 'tic'.
Each aexel in Universe X can only directly affect its neighbors and this effect takes one tic of time to occur. Therefore the fastest a signal can move across a field of aexels in Universe X is one aexel per tic.
In Universe X, one aexel per tic is referred to as 'the speed of light'.
Kinematics is the study of motion absent of force. In our universe, such motion is quite straightforward. Generally things in Universe X are less complicated than in our own universe, but in this case things in Universe X are considerably more complicated.
In the Cellular Automata section, a stable state loop was described as a closed set of cells with a certain state at time t, that returns to that same state at some later time. However, this definition is perhaps unnecessarily restrictive.
If one observes Conway's Game of Life long enough they may notice a very interesting phenomenon. Occasionally a pattern of cells arise that while persisting; does not do so in place; it "moves". The most common such stable state loop in Game of Life is called a glider, which repeats its pattern every 4 time steps while translating diagonally by one cell during those 4 time steps.
Similarly, all of the stable state loops in Universe X have the ability to translate across a field of aexels. However, due to the 'tic' time delay in transferring state from one aexel to its neighbor, this motion is strictly bound by the 'speed of light' (i.e., one aexel per tic). This translation is one of the forms of motion possible in Universe X.
But there is another entirely different way in which a stable state loop can move. Since the aexels themselves can move, it is possible for a stable state loop that is not translating across an aexel field at all, to simply move along with aexels it is sitting upon, like a leaf floating down a stream. And since this motion is not dependent on the signal delay between neighboring aexels, its speed is in no way bounded.
And of course a stable state loop could be (and most of the time probably is) experiencing both of these forms of motion simultaneously.
There are some rather sticky ramifications to all of this. In our universe a single particle moving in the absence of force can be described entirely by a velocity vector (ignoring quantum effects for the time being). In Universe X, in order to accurately understand the motion of stable state loop it is necessary to know the translating velocity of the loop measured in aexels per time as well as both the velocity of the aexels measured in distance per time and density of those same aexels, which in a simple system could be constant, but in more complex situations could vary from place to place.
Gravity is the tendency of objects with mass to move towards one another.
Isaac Newton first described the Gravity of our universe as a force that all objects exert on one another across any arbitrarily large distance, proportional to their mass and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. But, he acknowledge some discomfort with this idea:
"That one body may act upon another at a distance through a vacuum without the mediation of anything else, by and through which their action and force may be conveyed from one another, is to me so great an absurdity that, I believe, no man who has in philosophic matters a competent faculty of thinking could ever fall into it."
When Albert Einstein described his theory of Relativity he shifted our understanding of Gravity. He described gravity as being a result of the warping of spacetime caused by all objects with mass.
But, even with Newton and Einstein's contributions to Gravity we still really don't understand what Gravity is and why it exists. In our own universe, Gravity remains a mystery.
But, in Universe X, Gravity is a quite simple and mundane phenomenon.
In Universe X there exists many different types of stable state loops. These loops can be divided into three categories:
- Loops that don't affect aexels
- Loops that destroy aexels
- Loops that create aexels
That there exists loops that create aexels in Universe X is somewhat speculative, but for a number of reasons not a tremendous leap. But for this topic we are most interested in the loops that destroy aexels. In Universe X the loops that destroy aexels are called 'matter'.
Each of these loops have a destruction coefficient. The rate at which they destroy aexels is proportional to this destruction coefficient. In Universe X, this destruction coefficient is called 'mass'. As matter destroys the aexels, more aexels get pulled in because the aether's crystalline nature does not allow the aexels to ever get too far apart.
Imagine a round table with a table cloth upon it. On the table cloth there are plates and glasses and silverware. In the center of the table is a little hole. A person crawls under the table and grabs the table cloth through the hole and then begins to pull the table cloth through the hole. All of the items on the table will begin to slide towards the center of the table. The dishware sitting on the table cloth will appear to be 'attracted' to the center.
In Universe X as various concentrations of matter continually destroy the aether between one another they will continually tend to clump together. As a clump of matter gets bigger and bigger the velocity at which the aether is pulled towards the clump will continually increase.
At some point, certain clumps in Universe X get so big and the velocity of the aexels flowing towards the clump becomes so great that a signal moving at one aexel per tic ('the speed of light') will not be able to escape the clump. In Universe X, any clump that draws aether in at the speed of light is referred to as a black hole.
Perhaps one of the most magical aspects of our universe is the phenomenon of time dilation.
In our universe time dilation is the variation in the perceived rate of time of various frames of reference based on their relative velocity to one another as well as the relative difference in their gravitational field strength. That the rate of time itself can vary in our universe is severely magical in and of itself.
But, perhaps the most magical aspects of time dilation arise from the fact that in our universe there are no special frames of reference. For example, two space ships traveling parallel to one another in opposite direction near the speed of light will both note that their clocks are running at a different rate than the other ship's clocks. But, the really weird part is that both ships will see their own clock running faster and the opposing ships clocks moving slower. One truly shocking ramification of this is that simultaneous events in one frame will not necessarily be simultaneous in another frame.
In Universe X, however, no such time dilation occurs. There is however an analogous phenomenon, which is perhaps better described as 'animation dilation'.
Previously, the stable state loops of Universe X have been discussed as single entities. However, the loops themselves have properties of their own and are able to interact with other loops in order to create increasingly large and complex composite systems.
In Universe X the interaction of matter (loops that destroy aexels) is mediated by 'loops that don’t affect aexels'. For now let's refer to 'loops that don’t affect aexels' as photons. These photons always travel at one aexel per tic, which is to say they always travel at 'the speed of light'.
Exactly how this happens in Universe X is still a subject of speculation, but in broad strokes, some loops continually generate photons. When one of these photons hits another such loop, the photon affects that loop's rate of translation across the aexel field.
For example, consider a loop that is stationary on a field of stationary aexels (ignore gravity for a moment). A photon traveling from elsewhere is moving towards the loop. When the photon hits the loop (and is absorbed) the loop begins to translate across the stationary field of aexels.
In this way, complex static or dynamic systems of loops can be formed. The rate at which a dynamic system will animate will be highly dependent on the amount of time it takes photons to travel from loop to loop.
For two stationary loops separated by a fixed number of aexels the photon will travel between them at one aexel per tic. However, if the loops are both translating across the aexel field, the amount of time it takes photons to move between them will vary based on the direction of the photon relative to the translating motion of the loops across the aexel field.
In some cases the time will be less in others the time will be more, but in all cases the round trip time of a photon between the loops will increase as the rate of translation increases. This increased round trip time will result in a slow down of the rate of the animation of the dynamic system of loops.
This dilation in Universe X is substantially different than the dilation of our universe. For one thing, there IS a special frame of reference in Universe X. A system will animate most quickly when it is not translating across the aexels at all, allowing the photons to move most quickly between the loops.
In Universe X, dilation is not an observational phenomena. It is a real phenomena that is entirely dependent on a system's rate of translation. A system not translating at all will animate quickest; other systems will animate slower and slower as their rate of translation increases towards the speed of light, i.e. one aexel per tic.
In Universe X, two observers translating across the aexels in different frames will both agree on the relative animation rate of the two systems. Both will see a fast system and a slow system and they will both agree on which is which. There is no twin paradox in Universe X.
Furthermore, in Universe X this dilation is not of time, but rather is in the animation rate of phenomena mediated by photons. This dilation does not affect motion not mediated by photons. Because of this one could imagine an experiment that could be run in both universes that would yield very different results.
Any clock or biological system is entirely mediated by photons and therefore will be subject to dilation. However, one could imagine a gravity clock; for example a tank of water suspended above a sensor. A drop of water is released and is calibrated to hit the sensor in exactly one second. When the drop hits the center a photon pulse is sent up to the tank triggering the release of the next drop. The time of the photon pulse is substantially smaller than the water travel time.
In our universe, if we were to take one normal clock and one gravity clock, calibrate and synchronize both and place them on a levitating bullet train traveling due east at 300 mph for 100 miles and then observe both clocks, we would note that both clocks remain synchronized because in our universe time itself dilates.
However, such an experiment in Universe X would yield very different results. In Universe X dilation only affects the normal clock, not the gravity clock and consequently the two clocks will now be out of sync.
Length Contraction is a phenomenon that causes all things to shrink in the direction of motion or in the direction of gravity.
In our universe, length contraction is analogous to time dilation in that there are no special frames of reference, length contraction is an observational phenomena. Two parallel spaceships passing each other at high speed will both see meter sticks on the other ship as being smaller then their own.
In Universe X, however, length contraction is a real phenomenon and like dilation, is entirely a function of the translation rate of a system. A system that is not translating across an aexel field will experience no length contraction at all. However, a system that is translating across an aexel field will experience a contraction in the direction of translation (or aexel flow from the perspective of the system itself) that is entirely a function of the rate of that translation.
In our universe there is a feature of nature called Lorentz covariance which indicates that the speed of light is constant across all frames of reference.
In Universe X this concept would appear to break down quickly. For any system that is translating across an aexel field it would seem that the speed of light parallel to the direction of the aexel flow would be different than the speed of light perpendicular to the flow.
Certainly, in Universe X, the speed of light is always one aexel per tic. But, since the aexels themselves can move and since they can vary in density it would seem it might be easy to detect variations in the distance traveled per time.
However, Lorentz covariance also holds in Universe X, just as it does in our universe. And it does so because of length contraction. The flow of aexels through a system causes the distance that the loops sit from one another to become closer in the direction of flow. This smaller distance between the loops shrinks every object thats structure is dependent on the transmission of mediating photons.
And this amount of contraction precisely masks the change in the speed of light caused by the flow of aexels. In Universe X, a meter stick's length itself is a function of the speed of light. As the speed of light changes; the meter stick's length changes.
Essentially, a meter stick uses the speed of light to measure the speed of light and not shockingly it always comes out to be: the speed of light.
Astronomers observing our own universe have noticed some problems with our current understanding of Physics. There are two major issues: One, is that for unknown reasons the universe itself appears to be expanding. The other is that the galaxies of our universe appear to have greater gravitational pull than they should based on the amount of mass that they contain.
From these observations they realized that our universe contains dark energy which causes the universe to expand and dark matter which gives the galaxies more mass than they appear to have. The mass of dark energy and dark matter account for about 96% of the mass of the universe. Our observable universe only accounts for 4% of what exists. 96% percent of the mass of the our own universe has never been observed.
Luckily, once again, Universe X isn't nearly so magical.
Previously, we have mentioned 3 types of stable state loops:
- Loops that don't affect aexels
- Loops that destroy aexels
- Loops that create aexels
Tentatively, we have named 'loops that don't affect aexels' as photons and 'loops that destroy aexels' as matter. Again, it is perhaps somewhat speculative, but let's name 'loops that create aexels' as antimatter.
In our universe, there is a phenomenon known as pair creation. Of the many known particles of our own universe each has an antiparticle that is equal and opposite in every way. It has been observed that at times a particle and its antiparticle will be spontaneously created. Similarly, if a particle and its antiparticle meet they will each be entirely destroyed.
If we assume that this is also the case in Universe X, then perhaps all matter and antimatter was created through pair creation. And perhaps the total matter in Universe X is equal to the total antimatter in the Universe X. Alternatively, perhaps it is possible that Universe X was initially seeded with more matter or more antimatter.
If the amount of matter and antimatter is equal in Universe X and always remains so because of pair creation and pair destruction. And if antimatter creates aexels and creates them at the same rate at which matter destroys them, then perhaps the total amount of aexels in Universe X is a constant.
Matter in Universe X is continually destroying aexels drawing other matter towards it causing it to clump up. Perhaps the antimatter of Universe X is continually creating aexels causing the antimatter to spread apart.
And while the matter of Universe X clumps up into galaxies and stars and planets continually drawing in aexels as a drain in a tub continually draws in water. The antimatter of Universe X spreads out as a dust permeating the space between those galaxies continually creating new aether between the galaxies causing the space between them to continually increase.
And just as the destruction of aexels in Universe X looks like a pull. The creation of aexels in Universe X looks like a push. The antigravity of the antimatter pushing on the galaxies from the outside making it appear as if they have more mass than they actually do.
Odds and Ends
The following is a handful of calculations and smaller discussions about Universe X; topics include:
- Dilation in Universe X
- Dilation: Surface of a Sphere
- Dilation: Falling from Infinity
- Does Antimatter Fall?
Dilation in Universe X
As discussed in the Dilation section, dilation in Universe X is not of time, but rather is of the rate of animation, i.e., the rate that a system of loops progresses. This rate of animation is entirely dependent on the amount of time it takes signals traveling at one aexel per tic (i.e., the speed of light, which we'll call 'c') to complete a round trip journey between two given loops.
Let's look at two loops arranged perpendicular to the aexial flow. A signal traveling at c is sent out from one to the other and back.
The question is how long does this roundtrip journey take?
First, let's look at the case where v = 0, the loops are not moving at all relative to the aexial field. In this case, d = ct; or t = d/c.
In the second case, the loops are translating across the aexels at some non-zero 'velocity' (aexels/time), therefore the signal must travel a greater distance along the aexial field in order to complete its journey. If the one way journey takes t', then the loops move vt' and the signal moves ct'. Using the Pythagorean theorem we then get:
So, for a system of loops translating across an aexial field the signals traveling between loops will take longer and therefore the animation of that system will slow down entirely as a function of the rate of translation (aexels / time) across the aexels and that slowing down will be by the (perhaps familiar) equation above.
Dilation at the Surface of a Sphere
Now that we know what the dilation will be as a function of the translation rate across the aexels; let's now calculate what the dilation would be at the surface of a non-rotating sphere.
As discussed in the Gravity section, gravity in Universe X is not a force, but rather is a result of the destruction and creation of aexels and the pulling and pushing that that causes on the aethereal fabric. Gravity alone, therefore, cannot directly initiate the translation of a loop across an aexial field. All it can do is pull on the aexial field itself.
Let's take an empty universe and place a planet P and a tennis ball B in it, infinitely far apart, both of which are not translating across the aexial field at all. If we assume Newton's law of gravitation to be empirically true of Universe X, we can calculate the velocity of the tennis ball once it hits the surface of the planet. Since gravity can not directly cause a translation across the aexels, the velocity of the tennis ball must equal the velocity of the aexels upon which it is sitting.
This gives us the velocity of the aexels flowing into the planet at its surface. Any system at rest on the planet's surface will have the aexels flowing through it at that velocity, therefore we can plug that velocity into the previous dilation equation in order to get the dilation at the surface.
Coincidently, the dilation at the surface of a non-rotating sphere in Universe X is the same as that for our Universe.
Dilation while Falling from Infinity
In the previous calculation we dropped a tennis ball from infinity in order to calculate the velocity of the aexels flowing into the planet at the surface so that we could calculate the dilation for a system at rest on that surface. What about the dilation for the tennis ball itself?
In our Universe, this calculation might be pretty challenging, since time dilation is both a function of velocity and gravity and since both the velocity and gravity is constantly changing throughout the tennis ball's journey.
However, in Universe X, this calculation is quite easy. Dilation in Universe X is solely a function of the translating velocity over the aexial field. In Universe X, throughout the journey from infinity down to the planet's surface, the tennis ball's translation velocity remains zero; it is simply flowing down along with the aexels. And since, throughout the journey, there is never any translating velocity, there is therefore never any dilation.
Does Antimatter Fall?
In our Universe, it is an open question and a topic of much speculation of how an antimatter tennis ball would behave in the Earth's gravitational field. Perhaps, matter and antimatter are akin to positive and negative charges and antimatter will rocket up into the sky, falling upwards due to a negative mass. Or perhaps its mass is no different than a matter tennis ball's mass and it will fall down normally.
As for matter tennis balls, Galileo famously explained that all objects regardless of their mass fall at the same rate. A recent satellite called MICROSCOPE ran an experiment that found no difference in the acceleration of objects of different masses to an accuracy of 10^14.
But, let's perhaps look at this question in Universe X. In Universe X, gravity is not a force, but rather it is the pulling on the aether by things with mass or the pushing on the aether by things with antimass. For Universe X, Newton's law of gravitation would be better rendered as:
which is an acceleration not a force. If we consider a matter tennis ball (mass), antimatter tennis ball (antimass) and photon tennis ball (no mass) in the strong gravitational field of a large planet; all would be sitting on the same aether, all being pulled in at the same rate.
However, while the planet, by far is doing most of the pulling, the tennis balls themselves can also affect the aether; the matter tennis ball pulling; the antimatter tennis ball pushing and the photon tennis ball doing neither. Given the mass of the Earth and the mass of a tennis ball the amount of pulling or pushing a tennis ball would do is on the order of 10^24 less than that of the planet; 10 orders of magnitude less than our most sensitive test to date.
So, while if we could use our current tests in Universe X, the 3 tennis balls would seem to fall at the same rate, there would perhaps come a time where the very slight differences could be measured; with the matter tennis ball falling the fastest, the photon tennis ball coming next and the antimatter tennis ball falling the slowest.
In the current understanding of Universe X there are really two separate realms. There are the aexels themselves and there are the loops which live on top of the aexels. The aexels generally deal with the gravity of Universe X, where as the loops generally deal with the 'standard model' of Universe X.
And in this current understanding of Universe X, the only interplay between the two realms is the creation and destruction of the aexels by the loops. Since the aexels can move and vary in their density, it is possible for compression waves to travel through the aether.
In our Universe, compression waves, such as sound waves, move through various materials at various speeds. Depending on the dynamics of aexels themselves, it seems that any arbitrary velocity could be possible for such compression waves traveling through the aether of Universe X.
The LIGO experiment recently announced that they were not only able to detect gravity waves in our universe, but they were able to measure the velocity of the wave because it was paired with an e/m phenomena due to two neutron stars colliding. And while the gravity wave didn't hit precisely at the same time as the e/m wave, it hit close enough to strongly indicate that the speed of light played a significant part in the dynamics of gravity waves.
Admittedly, I was a bit surprised by this result. Certainly, there is nothing in Universe X that says that an aexial compression wave can't move at the speed of light, but there is also nothing that says that it must. The fact that it does, seems to indicate that the tic time delay in transferring a signal from one aexel to the next must somehow be relevant in the dynamics of the aexels themselves, not solely for the loops set on top of them.
As a result, this seriously calls into question the idea that a gravity clock in Universe X (as described in the Dilation section) would not undergo dilation.